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    Several Aspects of Surveying

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    Several Aspects of Surveying

    Post  Admin on Mon Jun 07, 2010 9:45 pm

    Several Aspects of Surveying
    By Piter Smith

    Surveying is the process of taking measurements of feature on and occasionally above and below the earth's surface to determine their relative positions. It is a science of accurately determining the terrestrial position of points and the distances and angles between them. The practice may be more precisely described as land surveying to distinguish it from other forms of surveying like building surveying or quantity surveying.

    The process of land and site survey, survey restricted typically to smaller areas of lands in comparison to land surveying, is important for purposes like:

    Mapping, to establish land maps from knowledge of geographical features of the land,

    Ownership issues, to establish boundaries and establish ownership over land masses,

    Resolving disputes and encroachment issues over land,

    New construction like buildings, marking off building areas,

    Assess the archaeological sites in a landscape,

    Mapping features of the bed of a water body,

    Determining the soil types and properties of the soil cover,

    Governmental purposes

    Of the divisions within land surveys, engineering surveying and topographic surveying (representation of land features) are typically relevant to site survey while geodetic surveying (accounting for the Earth's curvature) is relevant to survey of huge chunks of land masses.

    The several methods involved in land surveys are described below:

    1.For determining distances: Measuring of the areas with iron chains, steel and invar tapes taking into consideration horizontal and slope areas.

    2.For determining angles: Use of compasses bearing magnets, scribed discs, telescopes with reticles.

    3.For measuring heights: Use of altimeter or barometer using air pressure as indication of height

    4.Global Positioning System (GPS): Advent of the technology has given rise to estimation of elevation derived with sophisticated satellite receivers.

    5.Triangulation: With the method, which has outdated GPS, distances, elevations and directions between objects at great distance from one another can be determined with reasonable accuracy.

    The set of tools or instruments needed for land surveys have not changed much over the years. Only they has evolved to provide greater accuracy. Apart from the tapes, chains and compasses, some of the equipments that are used in the survey of lands are: theodolite, tripod, electronic distance measurement device (EDM), set up for satellite positioning system for working of GPS, total robotic stations (in conjunction with theodolite), etc.

    The land surveyors, who are typically engineering consultants, use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics and law in their work of surveys. Engineering, especially civil engineering, depends heavily on surveyors. The consultants establish the boundaries of legal descriptions whenever roads, railways, bridges, reservoirs, sustaining wall, buildings are to be built. They also provide advice and data for geographical information systems (GIS) which are computer databases that contain data on land features and boundaries marked in the land.

    Though it may seem to be the work of a meticulous engineer who puts together the two and two to make a four, the work in land surveys involve a great amount of art. Some land masses may have problem like improper boundaries and miscalculations, while some may have been created from multiple divisions. The art in the matter lies in the fact that the surveyor has to put together the bits and pieces in solving a puzzle that remains hidden to naked eyes.

    For any help on town planning consultants, check out the info available online; these will help you learn to find the town planning!

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